Tips and Tricks

Visualize periodic components using the Fourier transform.



Getting Started


As of right now (December 2020), the leading mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna. Their efficacy is estimated to be most likely around 94% … 95%.

most likely vaccine efficacy
vaccine efficacy likelihood

Randomized trials

To test a vaccine, you need to do a randomized blind trial. Gather tens of thousands of people. Divide them into two nearly equal groups. One group will receive the vaccine. The other group (the control) will receive an injection that looks exactly like the vaccine, but doesn’t actually do anything.


Ideal case

If you know nothing else besides the test result, then it’s very reliable: 99.9898%, which is basically 100%.

In the real world



Linear trend

Here’s timeseries data with a trend:

import pandas as pd
import…


Florin Andrei

Graduated Physics. Engineer in the computer industry. Working on my Master’s degree in Data Science.

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